Visa approved

I’m going to be spending next semester as a visiting scholar at MIT’s Department of Comparative Media Studies, and there are a lot of practical things to organize. We have rented a flat there, but still need to rent out our place at home (anyone rneed a place in Bergen  from August to December?). I’ve done the paperwork for bringing Norwegian universal health insurance with us to the US, and still have a few other forms to fill out for taxes. I think we can’t do anything about the kids’ schools before we get there.

But today’s big task was going to the US embassy in Oslo to apply for a visa.

Stamp on my DS-2019

Notes of interest about visiting the US embassy:

  1. They’ll store your phone and other small items in a box at the gate, but no large items or laptops.
  2. There are no clocks on the walls of the waiting room. Rows of chairs face the counters where the embassy employees take your paperwork and then call you up for your interview.
  3. They only let you bring your paperwork with you, nothing else. It was a two hour wait. There is no reading material provided except some children’s books. So the room was full of silent people with no phones, staring into space. The lack of phones or newspapers did NOT make them speak to each other.
  4. I had luckily brought a printout of a paper that needs revising and they seemed to think that was part of my paperwork so didn’t confiscate it. They wouldn’t let me bring my book or even my pencil. Luckily there was a pen chained to a dish at a counter not being used so I borrowed that and now have a wonderfully marked up essay that, once my computer is out, I can hopefully fix in a jiffy after my two hours of paper-based work on it. I was the only person in the waiting room not staring into space.

08. June 2017 by Jill
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I won the John Lovas Memorial Award for my Snapchat Research Stories!

I am so excited: I won the John Lovas Memorial award last night at the Computers and Writing Conference for my Snapchat Research Stories! The award is given by Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, the leading digitally-native journal for “scholarship that examines digital and multimodal composing practices, promoting work that enacts its scholarly argument through rhetorical and innovative uses of new media.” Here are the editors, Cheryl Ball and Doug Eyman, flanking my friend and earlier colleague Jan Rune Holmevik, who was at the conference and very kindly accepted the award for me:

John Lovas Award -congrats from Kairos

The award has been given to a long and impressive list of academic bloggers. This is the first year it has been opened up to other forms of social media knowledge sharing, and I am honored to be the first award-winner to win for something other than blogging. Yay!

The John Lovas Award is sponsored by Kairos in recognition and remembrance of John Lovas’s contributions to the legitimation of academic knowledge­sharing using the emerging tools of Web publishing, from blogging, to newsletters, to social media. Each year the award underscores the valuable contributions that such knowledge-creation and community-building have made to the discipline by recognizing a person or project whose active, sustained engagement with topics in rhetoric, composition, or computers and writing using emerging communication tools best exemplifies John’s model of a public intellectual.

John Lovas was an influential early scholarly blogger, especially important within the fields of composition and rhetoric. I’ve been rereading some of his blog posts, and note that he experimented with visual argumentation in his blog, something that was quite unusual at the time, because it was more complicated to get images off cameras and onto the web than now, and bandwidth was limited too so images had to be carefully compressed in a photo editor so they would load before viewers got bored. So I like to think that John Lovas would have appreciated the combination of visual and textual communication about research that and other academics on Snapchat are exploring.

Here is an archive of some of my Snapchat Research Stories – they are better on snapchat, add me on Snapchat to see them live – I’m jilltxt. Thank you so much for this recognition – I really wish I could have been at the conference.


03. June 2017 by Jill
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Finding my old notebook from 1997

I found an old notebook when I was tidying my desk today.

Notebook from 1997

Its from 1997 and 1998, when I was working on my MA in comparative literature and writing about creative, non-fiction hypertext.

I read all the 1990s hypertext theory and took careful notes.


Thinking about what David Kolb wrote about scholarly hypertext and whether you can actually do philosophy in a non-linear format.


I worried about reading too much and not writing enough.


And noted that while Walter Ong was interesting, he didn’t mention the internet.


Then I got to go to my first conference! ACM Hypertext 1998 – it was amazing. My MA advisor, Espen Aarseth, paid for my flight and hotel out of a grant he had and gave me two tasks: hand out flyers for a conference he was organising, and go and introduce myself to Stuart Moulthrop and tell him hi from Espen.

I have very thorough notes from the conference. Very thorough.


I even took thorough notes from discussions in the panel on hypertext and time. I love that Markku Eskelinen asked “Where is Genette?” Of course he did.


I was so touched to see these traces of my younger self. So earnest. So diligent.


So honest.


31. May 2017 by Jill
Categories: Uncategorized | 1 comment

Snapchat erases protests and diversity in its White Australia version of Australia Day

Snapchat’s live stories usually present the world in a way that emphasises diversity, tolerance and respect for different races, religions and sexualities. But sometimes they fail miserably – like in the Live Story about yesterday’s Australia Day, which is now available globally.

Australia Day is celebrated on January 26, the day the first fleet arrived in Australia from Britain, and there is a strong movement to #changethedate so that it celebrates Australia, and not the European invasion of indigenous Australian land. That movement is actually so strong that yesterday 50,000 people marched in Melbourne, and thousands more around in other cities all over Australia. Here is a photo of the rally in Melbourne yesterday:

invasion day 2017 Melbourne

Or take a look at The Guardian’s live blog to see a more diverse view of the day, including the formal celebrations and more.

Now look at how Snapchat presents it in its Live Story. I’ve taken one screenshot of each snap, but they’re all videos so imagine panning and sound. The story is still on Snapchat as of Jan 27, 09:53 am Central European Time.

 IMG_0967 IMG_0966 IMG_0968 IMG_0969 IMG_0970 IMG_0971 IMG_0972 IMG_0973

The first seven snaps are all of young, white people partying or at the pool. The last three are of fireworks.

It’s a short Live Story – the Live Story from the Women’s March last weekend had 71 snaps, so was obviously of a different scope altogether. But what an unbelievably skewed version of Australia Day this shows. What a skewed and stereotypical version of the Australian population it shows. Especially seen in contrast to the coverage of the inauguration and the Women’s March last weekend, this is pretty astounding.

I’ve previously noted that the Norwegian national day as seen on Snapchat appears to be nothing but young people partying in national costumes, which is not how the day looks to me. No doubt most of Snapchat’s portrayals of national, “exotic” festivals (at least exotic to young Americans) leave out a lot, or present things in a skewed manner. But at least Norway doesn’t have 50,000 people protesting the day that Snapchat somehow forgets to include in their story.

It looks as though Triple J may have sponsored this Live Story, based on the emphasis on their Hottest 100 in the first snaps. Triple J has been the radio channel for youth and music for decades, but their emphasis on a music countdown on what more and more people are calling Invasion Day rather than Australia Day may be ripe for change.

Another way in which Snapchat spreads very partial information about the politics of Australia Day is with their selfie filters and geofilters. I couldn’t access them in Norway, but the Live Story seems to have a couple of non-branded Australia Day geofilters, and some sponsored by Triple J. I imagine that Triple J actually sponsored the Live Story, or at least had significant influence on it, based on the number of geofilters they seem to have for the day, and their emphasis on the Hottest 100 on Australia Day. If that’s so, perhaps Snapchat’s US team, which seems to be pretty savvy about diversity in their own country, simply didn’t pay much attention. That would also explain why the narrative arc of the Live Story is pretty flat compared to many of the US Live Stories, which are more skilfully put together.

On Twitter, Elle Hunt shows us how politically biased the selfie filters are, too. This is what happens when advertisers control our means of production:

Screen Shot 2017-01-27 at 10.08.21

Here are the full images of her snaps:


But hey. Most people on Twitter like it. They love stories about young, white people getting lit.

Screen Shot 2017-01-27 at 09.54.57

But if Snapchat aims to be a news channel, and to spread public information about the public sphere, we need to know where they stand and especially, who is paying for it. In their Terms of Service, they write that

Live, Local, and any other crowd-sourced Services are inherently public and chronicle matters of public interest (..)

If so, their financing and bias should be transparent to the viewers.

27. January 2017 by Jill
Categories: Networked Politics, Snapchat | Leave a comment

What Does the Inauguration Look Like On Snapchat?

[16:42 Norway time Jan 20, 2017: I’ll update this post if more Inauguration-related content appears on Snapchat – and do let me know if there is content in the US that I can’t see here in Norway!]

I’m interested in how Snapchat will tell the story of today’s inauguration of Trump and of tomorrow’s Women’s March on Washington, both in personal Snapchat stories, and I hope, in one or more Live Stories. But Snapchat has been remarkably un-political in its Live Stories of late. This morning, I still see the one posted yesterday about “Winning at Winter”, full of people skiing and snowboarding and enjoying the snow. Nothing else. Is Snapchat deliberately ignoring the inauguration? It seems like the sort of thing they would typically do a live story on. After all, they did Brexit and the US primaries and election. Maybe a live story will appear later on – or maybe it’s a deliberate slight. (The first screenshot here is from yesterday, so there is a Discover story there from yesterday that isn’t there today.)

IMG_0679 IMG_0683 Screenshots from Winning at Winter Live Story 20 Jan 2017

There is some inauguration-related Discover Content on Snapchat today (as seen in Norway). Here is the complete list, for future historians:

  1. Daily Mail: Can you recognise retro Kim (photos of Kim Kardashian in underwear)
  2. Cosmopolitan: The Most Famous Butts on Instagram (photo of woman doing yoga pose with very perky butt)
  3. Vice: Why These Billionaires are Richer than Half the World
  4. MTV: Kylie’s First Ever Insta Photos are Pure Gold
  5. Mashable: How to Keep Your Texts Totally Private
  6. Refinery29: Popped a Zit? Try This.
  7. Food Network: How Well Do You Know Your Cheese?
  8. Brother: Leaving America? Here’s the Best Places to Live
  9. Tastemade: 13 Foods to Survive the Apocalypse
  10. CNN: A Brief History of Inauguration Screw-Ups
  11. BuzzFeed: Are You A Trusting Person?
  12. People: 12 Epic Secrets About Your Favorite Songs
  13. National Geographic: When Did People Walk Upright?
  14. Sweet: 8 Ways to Be More Powerful Starting *Now* (Photo of Barack Obama and daughter Malia)
  15. Comedy Central: These BTS Pics Ruin the Magic Of Harry Potter
  16. IGN: Fight the Good Fight with New Zelda & Injustice 2
  17. b/r sports: Zlatan or Aguero – Who You Got?

3 and 5 could be seen as political – they’re about economic inequality and privacy. 8, 9, 10 and 14 reference the inauguration, and definitely not in a pro-Trump manner.

IMG_0684 IMG_0685

IMG_0687 IMG_0686

20. January 2017 by Jill
Categories: Networked Politics, Snapchat | Leave a comment

Three book chapters

I’ve finished up revisions on a few book chapters in the last few months. Here are the preprints:

Rettberg, Jill Walker. “Online Diaries and Blogs.” In The Diary, edited by Batsheva Ben-Amos and Dan Ben-Amos. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, forthcoming. Pre-print, September 2016.

Rettberg, Jill Walker. “Self-Representation in Social Media.” In Burgess, Jean, Alice Marwick, and Thomas Poell (eds.) SAGE Handbook of Social Media, edited by Jean Burgess, . Sage, forthcoming. Pre-print, July 2016.

Rettberg, Jill Walker. “Biometric Citizens: Adapting Our Selfies To Machine Vision.” Preprint. In Kuntsman, Adi (ed.) Selfie Citizenship. Basingbroke: Palgrave, forthcoming. Pre-print, May 2016.

26. September 2016 by Jill
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Jilltxt discovers

I’ve been fascinated by recently. It’s an app that is extremely popular among tweens and young teens, and is mostly used for lip-syncing. There’s a lot to be said about the app, but here is a short thing I said about the way users use hand signs to interpret and perform the songs for my latest research story on Snapchat. Also includes a bonus lipsync of my own – it’s really, really hard to do these, and I think it’s very educational to try. You should too. But you probably don’t need to follow me on…

If you want more, take a look at some of the tutorials users are making on YouTube!


31. August 2016 by Jill
Categories: social media | Leave a comment

Men get the research money

A woman applying to the Norwegian Research Council’s program SAMKUL only has half the chance a man has of being supported. 

Continue Reading →

11. July 2016 by Jill
Categories: Gender balance in academia | Leave a comment

Results from a survey of 35 Norwegian high school students about their use of Snapchat stories

Earlier this month, I met a class of high school students to learn more about how they use Snapchat stories. I already blogged about my impressions from our discussion – today I want to share the results from the survey the students kindly answered for me. I plan to visit more high schools to get more data, because obviously 35 responses is a small sample, but it certainly gives me an idea of how young people use Snapchat stories. Only one student swore he never used Snapchat, and only two others said they used it less than weekly. As you can see, the vast majority (31 out of 35 students, or 89%) say they use Snapchat every day. Most of them, 25 students or 71%, use it several times a day.

Frequency of use in a class of 35 Norwegian high school students, 1 June 2016.

Frequency of use in a class of 35 Norwegian high school students, 1 June 2016.

Perhaps not so surprisingly, 89% of the students said they had used Snapchat on that particular day. I would have said that figure might be skewed since having a professor visiting to talk about Snapchat would likely encourage you to open the app, but it exactly matches the number of students who say they use Snapchat every day.

Everyone who had used Snapchat that day had sent one or more snaps, and most had watched stories from friends or celebrities that they followed: 80% had watched a story that day, and 83% had watched a story in the last week. Posting their own Stories was far less common. Only 20% had posted a Story on that day, although 54% had done so in the last week.


Watching the global content was even less common. 26% watched a Live Story that day and 60% had done so in the last week. (I can’t believe I didn’t write down what Live Story was showing that day!! Research fail…) The Discover channel was not popular. Only 4 of the 35 students (11%) had watched it that day, and just 20% (7 students) in the last week.

Since I met these students, Snapchat has changed the interface for Live Stories and Discover Channels so that the two look much more similar. Live stories are curated from snaps from regular users. Like most of these students, I rarely watch Discover channels, which are the big media channels: Mashable, CNN, Buzzfeed, Seventeen and so on. Here in  Norway we don’t see Snapchat’s own news channel. Live Stories used to be separated out, but have now been merged with the Discover channels and given graphics that make it hard to tell the difference between the two.

This is how Snapchat looked on 17 June 2016.    Snapchat-stories-screen-14-June-2016

The first of the screenshots above is from 17 June, the second is from 24 June. In the second one, it’s a little hard to see, but the second Story in the set of rectangles at the top is actually a Live Story about Brexit. The others are standard mostly-text news stories from Mashable, Cosmopolitan and the Daily Mail, with a video or animated image at the top and text when you scroll down. I’m guessing this change was done to get more users to read Discover channels (which allow for ads) — but I’m guessing it might just mean people ignore Live Stories as well. I shall have to visit more high schools, and maybe return to the first one, in the autumn to find out.

I also asked what kind of stories students who made stories usually made. Most use still images, many use videos. Not many try to create a narrative (“en sammenhengende fortelling”) with a sequence – most simply share random moments throughout the day.


In the dataset you’ll also find written answers which I have translated but not yet analysed. Feel free to dig in. Here it is on Google Sheets, and here it is on Figshare.

If you want to use the data, go ahead, but please share any results with me! It’s licenced under a CC-BY licence, so use it however you like so long as you cite me: 

Rettberg, Jill Walker (2016): Survey of Norwegian High School Students about Use of Snapchat Stories. figshare.

27. June 2016 by Jill
Categories: Snapchat, social media | Leave a comment

What high school students think about Snapchat stories

Update June 28: Here is the dataset of my survey of these students on Google Sheets or download it from Figshare. Feel free to use it but please let me know!!

Anders and I are researching Snapchat stories. Mostly we’re watching hundreds and hundreds of stories to see what kinds of narrative techniques people use, but we also want to know what regular users actually think about stories. Do they watch stories much? Do they make stories? What do they think is a good story?

So yesterday I visited a class of media students at a local high school. They’re planning a TV journalism project for the autumn where they’ll use Snapchat as well as making more conventional news stories, so I gave a short lecture about storytelling in Snapchat and then we had the most excellent class discussion about it, after which they generously filled out a short questionnaire I had prepared. I feel like I got a lot out of this meeting, and hope to visit several other schools too – if you’re a high school teacher near Bergen and would like a visit, let me know!

I haven’t gone through the written responses yet, but there were a lot of insightful comments from the classroom discussion. So I’m using this blog post as a research journal, writing out the student comments I noted down and found particularly useful, and that I may want to quote in future research. The facts: this was a class of thirty-five 16-17-year olds in a Norwegian high school (VG1, medielinjen) on June 1, 2016. I didn’t make a recording, because I didn’t want to deal with handling research data that can be tied to an individual, so this is based on my handwritten notes.

The teachers started off the discussion  asked why they like Snapchat – to the teachers, Snapchat stories look like badly done television, and they wondered why the students wouldn’t rather watch better-quality YouTube videos or something.

“It’s easily available,” said one student (lett tilgjengelig was the Norwegian expression), and many others supportived her. “Isn’t YouTube just as easily available?” a teacher asked. The students didn’t have a real answer for that, but they clearly felt Snapchat was more available. I suspect this might be due to the feed in Snapchat. You don’t have to think about what to watch next. You just open the app and start clicking.

A lot (maybe most?) of the students said they like Snapchat because they like seeing their friends’ lives. A substantial number of the students only have their actual friends on Snapchat (I’m guessing more than half? I’ll get the numbers when I go through the written responses) but there are also quite a few who follow celebrities and bloggers they don’t know personally. A student who does follow celebrities said she liked seeing their Snapchat stories because “it’s more personal” (det blir mer personlig når du følger kjendiser på Snapchat). Other students nodded and added that they liked the behind the scenes content.

When asked why they published snaps to their own stories, one student commented, “It’s easy, because you don’t have to plan it.” Others chimed in, saying that there was so little pressure. You can just snap something and post it without worrying too much about it. On the other hand, one student said he far preferred Instagram to Snapchat because the photos are better, precisely because people take more time and are more selective about which photos they post to Instagram.

One really interesting point that came up was the idea of a social media feed as stressful. One student said she liked Snapchat because it wasn’t stressful like Facebook is. “Why is Facebook stressful?” a teacher asked. “There’s just too much! The timeline never ends,” she said (Facebook er stress. Det er for mye på Facebook. Tidslinjen tar aldri slutt.) This seemed to be a feeling shared by many of the students. A young man echoed the first student: “There is always more on Facebook,” he said. “Yes, on Snapchat I only follow people I want to see,” another student said, but then followed up, saying “Well, except the ones I don’t really want to see. I just click through them quickly to make them go away.”  I wondered why they clicked through the snaps rather than just swiped the story away, but I don’t think I really got an answer. Maybe to see whether there was something interesting at the end of the story? Or maybe because of the knowledge that the person who posted it would have

A lot of the students seemed to feel this need to cleanse their feeds or to keep their feeds empty. One of the students actually used the term cleanse (rense): “I click through all the stories to clean them away.” (Jeg klikker gjennom for å rense de vekk.) So it seems they like that they have fewer friends on Snapchat than Facebook, thus fewer items in their feeds, and that the fact that stories disappear after 24 hours maybe isn’t just about privacy but about being able to start with a clean slate, or not feel that there was more information than you could handle.

Here is of one of the survey responses I received, transcribed in my handwriting and translated from Norwegian. I’m a humanities scholar, and I’ve not done this kind of research before, so to be honest, I haven’t even figured out how to get my stack of 40 responses entered into a spreadsheet. I started bravely, but only got to the third question, where the student has (as intended) crossed off several options, before my spreadsheet broke down. Do I use several cells in the spreadsheet for each question? Maybe I don’t type in the full response but generate some kind of codes? Like this, maybe: Informant 1, uses-several-times-a-day, sent-snaps-today, didn’t-post-snapto-story-today, posted-snap-to-story-last-week. That is going to be very time-consuming. Is there better software? A better system for organising it? If you have any ideas, please let me know! I’d like to make the dataset public, so it’d be good to organise the data in a way that is useful to me as well as others. (I assume this is social science methods 101 but hey, I’m from the humanities…)

A translation of the survey I asked the high school students to answer yesterday. The handwriting is mine, I translated one of the responses so you can see what the survey was like.


02. June 2016 by Jill
Categories: Snapchat | 1 comment

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